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including the word given. Here is an example (0) Example: (0) On holiday I prefer going sightseeing to relaxing on the beach. RATHER On holiday I would rather go sightseeing than relax on the beach. 1. Nobody explained why the flight had been delayed. REASON Nobody gave………………………………..…………………………………..……..to the flight. 2. Last year’s skiing holiday was more exciting than this year’s holiday by the sea. AS This year’s holiday by the sea …………………………………………………..last year’s holiday. 3. Maria doesn’t think we should visit the museum because it’s not very interesting. POINT Maria says…………………………………………...the museum because it’s not very interesting. 4. All of us are excited about our trip to China next month. LOOKING Everyone…...........................................................................................our trip to China next month. 5. When I was in Sweden, I managed to learn some Swedish. PICK When I was in Sweden, I was………………………………………………………..some Swedish. 6. The architecture here makes me think of the buildings in Amsterdam. REMINDS The architecture here………………………………………….…….of the buildings in Amsterdam.
His family name was originally Fife, and he was born in Scotland in 1768. In 1784, the Fife family immigrated to Albany, New York where Duncan’s father opened a cabinetmaking shop. Duncan followed in his father’s footsteps and was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker. After completing his training, Duncan moved to New York City. (2) Duncan Fife was first mentioned in the 1792 NYC Directory as a furniture “joiner” in business at 2 Broad Street. Two years later, he moved, expanded his business, and changed his name to Phyfe. He was a quiet-living, God-fearing young man who felt his new name would probably appeal to potential customers who were definitely anti-British in this post-Revolutionary War period. (3) Duncan Phyfe’s name distinguished him from his contemporaries. Although the new spelling helped him better compete with French émigré craftsmen, his new name had more to do with hanging it on a sign over his door stoop.(4) The artisans and merchants who came to America discovered a unique kind of freedom. They were no longer restricted by class and guild traditions of Europe. For the first time in history, a man learned that by working hard, he could build his business based on his own name and reputation and quality of work. (5) Phyfe’s workshop apparently took off immediately. At the peak of his success, Phyfe employed 100 craftsmen. Some economic historians point to Phyfe as having employed division of labor and an assembly line. What his workshop produced shows Phyfe’s absolute dedication to quality in workmanship. Each piece of furniture was made of the best available materials. He was reported to have paid $1,000 for a single Santo Domingo mahogany log. (6) Phyfe did not create new designs. Rather, he borrowed from a broad range of the period’s classical styles, Empire, Sheraton, Regency, and French Classical among them. Nevertheless, Phyfe’s highquality craftsmanship established him as America’s patriotic interpreter of European design in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. (7) Although the number of pieces produced by Duncan Phyfe’s workshop is enormous, comparatively few marked or labeled pieces have been found extant. In antiques shops and auctions, collectors have paid $11,000 for a card table, $24,200 for a tea table, and $93, 500 for a sewing table. 1. Based on the information in the passage, what can be inferred about Duncan Phyfe? a) He was an excellent businessman with a good sense of craftsmanship and design. b) He regretted that Great Britain no longer governed New York City. c) He built all his furniture by himself in a workshop in Santo Domingo. d) He joined the cabinetmakers’ guild after he moved to Scotland in 1792. 2. According to the passage, which of the following does the author imply? a) Duncan Fife and his father had the same first name. b) Duncan Fife worked for his father in Scotland. c) Duncan Fife and his father were in the same business. d) Duncan Phyfe made over 100 different kinds of tables. 3. Which sentence in paragraph 2 explains Duncan’s name change? a) The first sentence b) The second sentence c) The third sentence d) None of the above 4. Which choice does the word “it” refer to in paragraph 3? a) His spelling b) His chair c) His French d) His name 5. Which choice is closest in meaning to the word “guild” in paragraph 4? a) Verdict of a jury b) Organisation of craftsmen c) Political party of émigrés d) Immigrant’s club 6. Which of the following does the word “freedom” in paragraph 4 refer to? a) No longer restricted b) Restricted c) By working hard d) Took off 7. Where in the passage could the following sentence be added to the passage? Every joint was tight, and the carved elements were beautifully executed. a) After the word “workmanship” in paragraph 5 b) After the word “cabinetmaker” in paragraph 1 c) After the word “stoop” in paragraph 3 d) After the word “table” in the last paragraph 8. In his business, Duncan Phyfe used all of the following EXCEPT: a) division of labor b) an assembly line c) continental designs d) the least expensive materials 9. Based on information in the passage, what can be inferred about Duncan Phyfe’s death? a) He died in the eighteenth century. b) He died in Albany. c) He died in the nineteenth century. d) He died in Scotland. 10. The author implies that a) furniture from Duncan Phyfe’s workshop no longer exists b) furniture from Duncan Phyfe’s workshop costs a lot of money today c) furniture from Duncan Phyfe’s workshop was ignored by New Yorkers d) furniture from Duncan Phyfe’s workshop was made by his father
gross national product (GNP) is growing faster than the population. The GNP per capita is among that of most other European countries. The state sector was reduced during the 1980s and 1990s owing to policies of privatization, or denational­ization, of publicly owned corporations. There was also an improvement in the standard of living. Unemploy­ment and inflation rates were gradually reduced but remained high. Nowadays, government policies include the close monitoring and frequent adjustment of interest rates; a gradual reduction in the level of direct personal taxa­tion; a reduction in the levels of power and influence of national trade unions in national labour negotiations; the encouragement of wider home ownership and of individuals’ share holdings in companies. Considerable emphasis is placed on increased exposure of the economy to market forces. The government controls the production of coal, steel, and ships, it also runs certain utilities, the railways, and most civil aviation. Manufacturing industries account for one-fifth of the GNP.Small companies predominate, though companies with 500 or more employees employ a larger percentage of the work force. Major manufactures include motor vehicles, aerospace equipment, electronic data- processing and telecommunication equipment, metal goods, precision instruments, petrochemicals, and other chemicals. High-technology industries are being developed. Agriculture accounts for less than 2 percent of the GNP and employs some 2 percent of the work force. Farming is highly mechanized, though farms are not extremely large, and is dominated by the raising of sheep and cattle. The United Kingdom is not agriculturally self- sufficient. Chief crops include barley, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes. The mineral industry accounts for approximately 6 percent of the GNP but employs less than 1 percent of the work force. Production from oil fields in the North Sea has allowed the United Kingdom to become virtually self-sufficient in petroleum. The United Kingdom’s coal industry, despite its steady decline since the early 1950s, remains one of the largest and most technologically advanced in Europe. Public revenues ordinarily fall short of expenditures and are chiefly derived from income taxes, which are highly progressive, and excises. A single graduated income tax was introduced in 1973. Deficits are offset by public borrowing. The country (as well as its capital) is a major world financial and banking centre. Chief imports of Great Britain are: metallic ores, except iron ore, food. Chief exports are: china, automobiles and other vehicles, wooden goods, steel, electrical and mechanical machinery, tractors, scientific instruments, chemicals, petroleum. Just under half of the total population is in the labour force. The highest proportion of employees (more than two-thirds) are in the service sectors, financial services and distribution. Manufacturing, although it has declined, employs more than one-fifth of all workers. Smaller numbers are in construction, energy, agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Ответьте на вопросы: 1.What is the rank of the UK in the world in terms of the GNP? 2.How did the GNP of the UK changed in years 1993-94? 3.What are the major industies in the UK? 4.When did Great Britain become a member of the EU? 5.What are the major economic problems of Great Britain? 6.What is the British government economic policy since 1979? 7.What is said in the text about the unemployment in the UK? Используя информацию из текста докажите, что: 1.The United Kingdom is an attractive country for foreing investors. 2.UK has many natural resources for its developed industry. 3.UK is a large market for national producers. 4.UK is a perfect place for international trade. Помогите, пожалуйста 😢
показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite; б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного; в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного Переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. We discussed the student's progress the meeting 2. Most cities have colleges or universities in the USA 3. Mathematics plays an important part in many sciences
wouldn't have caught cold 2. If I (be) you, I should take the recommended medicine. 3. If you had gone to see a doctor, he (give you a sick leave. 4. You would gargle three times a day if you (have) a sore throat. 5. What might happen if he (be) ill? 6. You should have complained if you unwell 7. If he (have) a headache, he would better (go) home. 8. We should ask him if he (be) here. 9. We should have asked them if they (be there yesterday. 10. If I had known about his illness, I not (ask) him to come t our place. 11. If he hadn't treated his disease lightly, he (have) complications. 12. We would write him a letter if we (know his address.
very impolite and impatient. 4. A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt. 5. Some people where arrested. They have now been released. 6. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half hour.
risky tell about other winter sports advise to start with joining a gym tell about your latest visit to the skating rink. Write a letter of at least 100 words. Do not write any dates or addresses.
1. I often meet this engineer here. 2. You go to the factory every day. 3. I read newspapers every morning. 4. His sisters always give me book to read. 5. They often go there. 6. I usually read the newspaper at home. 7. They often come here. 8. We write questions at home. не могу сообразить(
чемпионата мира по футболу 2018 года, который пройдёт в России. 3. Представляет собой волка с коричнево-белой шерстью. 4. Сочетание белого, синего и красного в футболке и шортах представляют национальные цвета команды России. 5. Разработан дизайнером Екатериной Бочаровой. 6. Волк – опасен и агрессивен, как и футбол. 7. Название Забивака символизирует забитые голы 8. Волк отлично ассоциируется с Россией, у вас в лесах их много водится. 9. Я считаю, что Забивака очень интересный талисман, который будет олицетворять Россию, как сильного и мощного противника
for meetings, most ignore emails and three out of four use bad language. In a survey of 1000 workers, two-thirds say that pressure of work is the reason for their bad manners. Other common examples of bad office etiquette include ignoring colleagues and answering mobile phone calls during meetings. Using mobile phones in meetings is impolite and distracts others, research by the University of Surrey shows. If you respond to a call when speaking to somebody, it means than the person, the survey said. If you answer a call during a meeting, it could mean that you think the meetings is not important. Mr Jacobs, managing director of Office Angels, a recruitment firm, says it is easy for people to forget their manners in the working environment, which is often very informal and very busy. Workers can forget proper etiquette such as introducing people at meetings, and this is often bad for working relationships.Psychologist Dr Colin Gill believes that people are not as polite as they were twenty years ago. He said: «Courtesy is no longer something that is so much respected in our society». People think it is «stuffy to be polite or formal». Now some organisations are actually investing money in training their junior managers to be polite. Office Angels is encouraging people to arrive on time for meetings, turn off mobile phones and avoid bad language. «Avoiding bad manners at work is such a simple thing to do», Mr Jacobs says, «and it can have a dramatic impact on improving your working environment and your relationships with others». Bad manners are bad for business The study also asked HR departments to allocate a percentage value for best, consistent, inconsistent and poor performers within their organisations. Those organisations with a high incidence of reported incivility had a high percentage of poor and inconsistent performers. "We know that this type of behaviour impacts people’s emotional wellbeing and physical health, but this is the first research to show that it affects the extent that they will promote their organisation and work hard to contribute to its success". Tips for dealing with bad mannered co-workers. 1. Do not reciprocate the behaviour. Reacting with similar actions can quickly spiral into increasingly aggressive behaviours. 2. If circumstances permit, set up a discussion with the person and tell them that you find their behaviour offensive. 3. Understand your organisations policies and procedures. If the situation worsens, you can then report the offensive behaviour in an official manner. 4. If you are stressed and upset by the behaviours, talk to a psychologist or make use of confidential employee assistance programs. Сourtesy, respect and manners are essential for success in the workplace. In times of economic crisis, this is an indispensable requirement for obtaining and maintaining employment. Its time for a return to common courtesy and polite speech; time for the reappearance of "good morning", "how are you?", "please" and "thank you". Modern tendencies towards friendlier business relationships, as well as increased openness, and warmth in relationships in general are fine and good, but these new tendencies shouldn’t supersede, but rather should accompany traditions of courtesy and good manners in all interactions be they at work or at home.
dwelling on the following questions: explain the purpose of your report give examples and say why the canteen is not popular with young people briefly describe two dishes which are not popular with young people recommend your menu, entertainment, interior Write a letter of at least 100 words. Do not write any dates and addresses.
fish,dish, news, wife, hero, glass, wolf 2. Read the following nouns first in the singular and then in the plural: 1. bag, dog, bird, verb, pan, hen, spoon, noun, room, ring, thing, evening, song, girl, apple, table, article; 2. tree, pie, cow, fly, lady, baby, teacher, letter, mirror, berry, play, toy, city; 3. cake, snake, fork, map, lamp, hat, clock, rat, coat, goat, skirt, shirt, plant, jacket, object, attribute; 4. shelf, leaf, knife, wife, roof, chief, handkerchief; 5. bus, class, glass, dress, piece, slice, horse, house, rose, nose, blouse, box, fox, match, bench, bridge, cage, cottage, bush; 6. man, woman, child, foot, tooth, goose, mouse, ox, fish, trout, fruit, swine, mouse, louse, deer, sheep; 7. phenomenon, crisis, stimulus, formula, axis, thesis, criterion. 3. Give the plural form of the words underlined. Pattern: I met a man at the meeting last night. I met some men at the meeting last night. 1.<cut/>I saw a mouse running across the floor. 2. The baby got a new tooth. 3. I need a match. 4. He cooked a potato for dinner. 5. The professor is reading a thesis. 6. I visited a city in the Ukraine. 7. She photographed a leaf. 8. I caught a fish. 9. I saw a sheep in the farmyard. 10. She talked to a child. 11. The children hid behind the bush. 12. In science class we studied about a species of fish. 13. When I was in the park yesterday, I saw a goose. 14. When we spoke in the cave, we heard an echo. 15. He packed a box. 16. Every day I read in the newspaper about a new crisis in the world. 17. The wagon is being pulled by an ox. 18. I told the children a fable about a wolf and a fox. 19. We read a story about an Indian chief. 20. At the meeting last night, we were listening to a speech. 21. In science class, we studied a phenomenon of nature.
built last year. 5. All letters had been written when we came. 6. This film is much spoken about. 7. The machine is being tested now. 8. His work has been already finished. 9. I was told to wait in the reception room. 10. Your letter will have been answered by Monday.

I. Choose the word or phrase which completes each sentence best.

1.Good teachers are always _____________great demand

a) orb) inc) of

2.There has been a sharp increase in the number of claims _____________ industrial injury compensation.

a) aboutb) ofc) for

3. Can we begin by discussing matters _____________from the last meeting?

a) arisingb) risingc) raising

4. The theory seems vulnerable _____________ criticism.

a) forb) toc) on

5. One of the ways to _____________the movement of people in and out of a country is by regular_____________.

a) monitor; controllingb) control; checkingc) check; controlling

6.The campaign is designed to increase public awareness _____________the issue.

a) inb) aboutc) of

7.The price of oil went up_____________$2 a barrel.

a) inb) onc) by

8.Sales went up rapidly five years ago and the decreased sharply; they ___________ stable ever since.

a) are remainingb) remainc) have remained

9.The company has a _____________organizational structure.

a) sophisticatedb) complicatedс) complex

10. Though it is part of marketing _____________has no direct involvement in selling.

a) promotionb) public relationsc) advertising

11.I've heard Franz didn't take that job. If I ______________ him, I ____________.

a) had been; would have takenb)were; would have takenc) were; would take

12. She was told by the sales assistant that she could not have a___________ without a receipt.

a) rebateb) discountc) refund

13. Despite steady increases in sales their net profit ___________between 1992 -1995.

a) have been fallingb) fellc) had fallen

14.I'm a private investigator, but there are plenty of ways to________what I do, such as calling myself a «security

consultant».

a) distortb) confusec) disguise

15. __________they are with an adult, children are not allowed to use the swimming pool.

a) Providedb) Unlessc) As long as

16.Some difficulties ___________with the new computers.

a) have arisenb) have risenc) have raised

17.The government has been faced with a number of___________ recently.a) crisisb)crisesc) crisises

18.Surely it would be ___________to get a second opinion.

a) sensualb) sensitivec) sensible

19.There was an advertisement ___________a free day of skiing in Vermont.

a) ofb) forc) with

20.We didn't expect to get such a sympathetic response ___________our appeal for help.

a) tob) atc) for

2. Writing

Write an email based on the following brief. Write about 50–60 words.

You have just finished a two-month summer placement with an international company. You would like to thank your line manager, Julie Johns, for all her help and support and let her line manager know she did a good job.

Write an email to Julie Johns:

·Thank her for the opportunity to work with the company

·Thank her for all her support during your placement

·Identify one occasion where she really helped you

·Say what you learned

"busy”. His alarm clock rings at 7:00 o'clock. But he usually turns over and goes to sleep because he’s tired. Sometimes, he throws the alarm clock across the room. So he wakes up late, at about 8:30 o’clock. And he runs to the bathroom to wash and brush his teeth. He doesn’t have time to have a shower. He doesn’t have time to eat and he has to drink his tea in a hurry! He takes his bag and runs to the bus stop to catch his bus. He gets to university only at 9:30. Every morning Tom is late to the first lesson. Tom comes home at about 16:00 o’clock and he has dinner. After dinner, he sometimes watches TV, plays the guitar but he usually goes out with friends. Tom never does his homework. He comes late at 2 or 3 o’clock at night…. and he goes to bed because he is always very tired at this time.And tomorrow he has another “busy” day! 1. Where does Tom study? Tom study at the university.____________________________ What time does his alarm clock ring?__7:00 ___________________________ Why can’t he get up? _____________________________ Does he have time to have a shower?_____________________________ What does he eat for breakfast? ______________________________ What time does Tom get to university?____________________________ What time does he have dinner? _____________________________ What does Tom usually do after the dinner?________________________ 7. Complete the questions with: Where,When,What,Who,How,Why. … … … studies history? (Tom) … … …does he go to the university? (by bus) … … … does Tom study history? (in London) … … …does Tom drink for breakfast? (a cup of tea) … … …does he go to bed at night? ( at 2 or 3 o’clock) … … …does Tom never do his homework? (because he goes out with friends)
1. We sent for the police. 2. They speak much about this book. 3. They often laugh at him. 4. They listened to our conversation very attentively. 5. I think they will wait for us only in a week. 6. Nobody took notice of his late arrival. 7. We looked through all the advertisements very attentively. 8. He was a brilliant speaker, and whenever he spoke, the audience listened to him with great attention. 9. They will look after him in hospital much better. 10. Everybody looked at her new dress with interest.
Вопрос задан анонимно
18.12.16
listen to my staff more. 3.Susan ans Sharon:we need to invest in the development of staff. 4.Pierre:I am feeling under pressure at work. 5.Justin:The company has been performing badly. 6.Eleanor:I am going to look for a new job
-Kate: Hi, David! I'm fine, thank you! And, how are you
-David: Very well, thanks! Just a bit worried about the coming exam.
-
Kate: Why? Is it so difficult to pass?
David: No, I wouldn't say it's very difficult, but it's definitely important for my future profession. Kate: I see. Are you worried about Biology? David: Yes, I really need good marks in this exam, because I want to enter a Medical college. Kate: I remember that you've planned to study in the field of medicine. What's so interesting in it? In my opinion, it's a very difficult job to deal with various human illnesses.
David: You're right. I've never thought it's easy. But I know for sure that working in medical field is interesting and useful. When I imagine that after several years of studying I'll be capable of treating people around me, I want to study even more eagerly. Other than that, I'm interested in various innovations.It would be great if I could make my own discovery in medicine. Kate: Sounds great! And, have you chosen the exact field, yet? I mean, do you want to work in dentistry, gastroenterology, traumatology or any other fields? David: Yes, I know what you mean. I want to be a humble physician, because these people's work involves lots of knowledge almost in every medical field. They should be aware of many health problems. Kate: I see. That's a good choice. David: Remind me, please, what did you choose to do after the school is over? Kate: I want to go to a Law school. My parents insist on it. David: Are you unhappy with their choice? Kate: Kind of. I've always wanted to be an artist. You know, I'm really fond of drawing. But my father says that being an artist is more of a hobby than actual work. He says that I can draw in my free time just for pleasure. David: He might be right. However, if you don't want to become a lawyer at all, then better refuse now. Kate: No, it's fine. It has lots of advantages too. Lawyers sometimes deal with interesting people and cases. I will probably like the process of investigation or negotiations at court. David: Sounds interesting! I think, you should pass Social studies to enter the City Law School, is that right? Kate: Yes, that's true. I'm also a bit nervous before the exams. However, I think we'll do just fine. David: Thanks for cheering me up! I feel much better now. Kate: No problem! We can talk about it anytime.
that it contained a description of 42 constellations and coordinates of 850 stars. What is his name? 2. He did enough to recalculate the major components of the supposed orbits of the Sun, Moon, and planets around the Earth. Its attraction was because of its break with traditional doctrines: in particular, it opposed Aristotle, who had argued cogently for the fixity of the Earth; it provided an alternative to Ptolemy's geocentric universe. Who was this scientist? 3. He put forward several ideas about space travel. He believed humans would eventually colonize the Milky Way Galaxy. His idea of spaceship was based on the use of liquid fuels. His calculations were used in modern theory of cosmonauts and practical space travel, who was he? 4. This man was one of the founders of the Soviet space program and was one of the lead architects behind the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1) alongside Sergey Korolyov.After Korolyov's death in 1966, he became the lead scientist of the Soviet space program and was responsible for the launch of the first space stations from 1971 to 1991, including the Salyut and Mir series, and their precursors in 1967, the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188. What is the name of this man? 5. This cosmonaut went outside wearing a spacesuit connected to the capsule by a line which also carried his oxygen supply, becoming the first person to ‘walk’ in space. From the first experiments scientists went over to systematic exploration of space. He was also a talented artist. Who was this cosmonaut? 6. The longest time spent in the open space and the highest number of spacewalks. This cosmonaut during his flights into space completed 16 spacewalks of total duration of 82 hours and 22 minutes. What is the name of the cosmonaut? 7. She was the first person to use the robotic arm to retrieve a satellite, and the first woman to use the arm in space. She spent several years working at NASA headquarters where she founded NASA’s Office of Exploration. What is the name of this cosmonaut? 8. These two astronauts made the first untethered space walk in 1984. Who were they? 9.They were people who visited space as space tourists. How many space tourists were in the history of astronautics? What are their names? What is the name of the space tourist who visited space twice? 10. This museum offers a range of exhibits exploring the history of cosmonautics in the very space in which the Soviet Union first set up laboratories in the 1930s to research military rocket science. It was opened in 1973. The museum’s exhibits include rocket engines, a number of cosmonauts’ spacesuits, and even the space-dogs Belka and Strelka (taxidermied, of course) etc. II. The Earth in the window (Земля в иллюминаторе) 1. What is the largest telescope in the world? 2. It is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying. What is this place? 3. We all know the names of the planets of the Solar System. Do you know what the names mean 4. The astronomers refer to it as a Sidereal Day. What is it? How long does it last? 5. As you’re probably aware, the Earth has one moon. It is really so? III. The Earth messengers (Посланцы Земли) 1. In this silent film, a man travels to the Planet and leads a popular uprising against the authorities and attracts the love of Queen. What is the name of the film? When was it filmed? 2. It was the first living being that went to space travel. What was it? 3. This dog participated in many ground-based space experiments, but never made it into space. One of the pups was named Pushinka («Fluffy») and was presented to President John F. Kennedy's daughter Caroline by Nikita Khrushchev in 1961. What is the name of the dog? 4. On April 11, 2008, Russian officials unveiled a monument to this dog. It died within hours after launch from overheating. A small monument in its honour was built near the military research facility in Moscow which prepared the dog's flight to space. It features a dog standing on top of a rocket. 5. What qualities and characteristics does a cosmonaut have? 6. It was A.G. Nikolayev’s favourite song. What was its name? 7. They called them “star brothers”. One of them was A.G. Nikolayev, and the second person was… What was his name? 8. How did they call A.G. Nikolayev for lasting four days in an isolation chamber? 9. This condition is called “the effect of Nikolayev”. What does it mean? 10. This event happened on June 9, 1970. It was the first time in the history of cosmonautics. What event was it? IV. It is interesting to know… (Интересные факты) 1. What happens if the cosmonaut falls out of the capsule in orbit, after accidentally opening the hatch? 2. How much do astronauts “grow” in space? 3. On this planet the sun rises in the west, and sets in the east? What is its name? 4. He is an armless, legless, human-shaped mannequin whose body is loaded with over 400 dosimeter sensors which collect data from galactic cosmic rays and other radiation sources in space. What is it? 5. The monument to this astronaut has one interesting feature – in the left hand of the astronaut squeezed…. What is squeezed in his hand? Who is the astronaut?
Вопрос задан анонимно
24.11.17
than diesel engines. That makes them cheaper, and that is why most cars and motorbikes use petrol engines. On the other hand, diesel engines use less fuel and last longer than petrol engines. They are also safer and less dangerous. They are widely used in large vehicles such as trucks and trains. б) Заполните пропуски соответствующей активной или пассивной формой глагола по смыслу и переведите предложения на русский язык: 1. The engine (cooled, is cooled) by water from the radiator. 2. Most cars (use, are used) petrol engines. 3. The electricity (stored, is stored) in the battery. в) Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты: 1. Rudolf Diesel is known to be the inventor of the diesel engine. 2. We expect them to buy a new car. 3. This motor car is considered to be safe. г) Составьте три специальных и три общих вопроса к тексту. д) Выпишите из текста все прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени и переведите их на русский язык.
2)...you see a lizard? 3)...you break your favourite toy? 4) ...you want to drink very much? 5)… you want to eat very much?
The car business has a serious problem: it is producing too many cars. This over- capacity is resulting in fierce competition. Each manufacturer is competing in every segment of the market, with a huge range of models to attract different consumers. And models are frequently updated to keep interest fresh. This is making the business complex and expensive. So how can companies cut costs and increase their profit margins? To offer so many different models, car companies need factories that are completely flexible. They need to switch quickly from making one model to another to meet changing demands. Honda was first to do this, organizing its factories so that any one of them could make any model of car. They can switch to a new model overnight, simply by changing the software in the robots. Delivery is another issue that affects margins. For years, companies have tried to cut the time between a customer placing an order for a car and taking delivery.Manufacturers now operate a just-in-time production system. The components for each car arrive at precisely the right moment then they are needed for assembly line. Such production methods have cut the cost of holding components in stock, and have resulted high productivity. Most makers are now able to assemble a car in just 18-20 man hours. But once the car is finished, it usually stays in a distribution centre for 40-80 days. A shorter order-to-delivery cycle would lower the costs of holding stocks of finished cars. Moreover, most of these vehicles need to be discounted to get people to by them. With big discounts on sale price, there is no guarantee of profits even then the factories are busy. The magic answer to all this could be «build to order» (BTO). Instead of following the sales department’s forecasts, cars could be quickly assembled to the customer’s orders. Nissan has calculated they could increase profit by as much as $3,600 a vehicle in this they. But some people in the industry predict that the shape of car manufacturing will change even more radically. One view is that today’s manufacturers will disappear. In their place will be vehicle brand owners (or VBOs). They will do only the designing, engineering and marketing vehicles. Everything else, including even final assembly, will be done by the parts suppliers. The future of the car industry is kit cars. Or make that cars designed and built using elements of common kit architecture. Currently, there are two families of erector kits which can be assembled into all kinds of cars at Volkswagen. They have Teutonic names like «Modularer Querbaukasten» (MQB) and «Modularer Längsbaukasten» (MLB). Porsche is developing a «MMB» (Modularer Mittelbaukasten) for Mittelmotor (mid-engined) cars, or possibly a MSB (Modularer Standardbaukasten), which could be the Mutter of all Baukasten. Audi is already working with the MLB architecture. This coming year, Volkswagen will start using the MQB. Says Automobilwoche: «The Modulare Querbaukasten will provide at least 43 models of Volkswagen, Audi, Skoda and Seat with the same components: Underbody, axles, drivetrains. Europe’s largest automaker wants to become more flexibl, wants to react faster to changing customer demands and wants to save 30 percent of costs. Michael Macht, chief of production, calls it a ‘milestone’». Success and failure of a car company will be decided in the emerging markets. This is where the growth is. But this is also where a lot of small cars change hands andthe smaller the car, the bigger the need for creative cost control. VW chief Martin Winterkorn said: «In the car business, staying power is built on a better cost structure». The new kit architecture «is more than a new technology, it is a strategic weapon», said Ulrich Hackenberg, chief of Volkswagen’s Research and Development. It also allows to build niche cars and to react to regional differences without reinventing the wheels. Audi alone will increase its model count from 38 today to 50 by 2020. A new production engineering is inherent to the kit architecture. Volkswagen plants worldwide are being currently changed to accommodate the kit, and to become nodes in a larger production kit architecture. If people think of badge engineering, then they are misguided, says Hackenberg: «The creativity of engineers and designers of the different brands remains unencumbered. In the contrary. It is more welcome and more demanded than ever before». Such changes to the way the industry organized may be necessary if companies are to survive.
owned by car companies. The car business has a serious problem: it is producing too many cars. This over- capacity is resulting in fierce competition. Each manufacturer is competing in every segment of the market, with a huge range of models to attract different consumers. And models are frequently updated to keep interest fresh. This is making the business complex and expensive. So how can companies cut costs and increase their profit margins? To offer so many different models, car companies need factories that are completely flexible. They need to switch quickly from making one model to another to meet changing demands. Honda was first to do this, organizing its factories so that any one of them could make any model of car. They can switch to a new model overnight, simply by changing the software in the robots. Delivery is another issue that affects margins. For years, companies have tried to cut the time between a customer placing an order for a car and taking delivery.Manufacturers now operate a just-in-time production system. The components for each car arrive at precisely the right moment then they are needed for assembly line. Such production methods have cut the cost of holding components in stock, and have resulted high productivity. Most makers are now able to assemble a car in just 18-20 man hours. But once the car is finished, it usually stays in a distribution centre for 40-80 days. A shorter order-to-delivery cycle would lower the costs of holding stocks of finished cars. Moreover, most of these vehicles need to be discounted to get people to by them. With big discounts on sale price, there is no guarantee of profits even then the factories are busy. The magic answer to all this could be «build to order» (BTO). Instead of following the sales department’s forecasts, cars could be quickly assembled to the customer’s orders. Nissan has calculated they could increase profit by as much as $3,600 a vehicle in this they. But some people in the industry predict that the shape of car manufacturing will change even more radically. One view is that today’s manufacturers will disappear. In their place will be vehicle brand owners (or VBOs). They will do only the designing, engineering and marketing vehicles. Everything else, including even final assembly, will be done by the parts suppliers. The future of the car industry is kit cars. Or make that cars designed and built using elements of common kit architecture. Currently, there are two families of erector kits which can be assembled into all kinds of cars at Volkswagen. They have Teutonic names like «Modularer Querbaukasten» (MQB) and «Modularer Längsbaukasten» (MLB). Porsche is developing a «MMB» (Modularer Mittelbaukasten) for Mittelmotor (mid-engined) cars, or possibly a MSB (Modularer Standardbaukasten), which could be the Mutter of all Baukasten. Audi is already working with the MLB architecture. This coming year, Volkswagen will start using the MQB. Says Automobilwoche: «The Modulare Querbaukasten will provide at least 43 models of Volkswagen, Audi, Skoda and Seat with the same components: Underbody, axles, drivetrains. Europe’s largest automaker wants to become more flexibl, wants to react faster to changing customer demands and wants to save 30 percent of costs. Michael Macht, chief of production, calls it a ‘milestone’». Success and failure of a car company will be decided in the emerging markets. This is where the growth is. But this is also where a lot of small cars change hands andthe smaller the car, the bigger the need for creative cost control. VW chief Martin Winterkorn said: «In the car business, staying power is built on a better cost structure». The new kit architecture «is more than a new technology, it is a strategic weapon», said Ulrich Hackenberg, chief of Volkswagen’s Research and Development. It also allows to build niche cars and to react to regional differences without reinventing the wheels. Audi alone will increase its model count from 38 today to 50 by 2020. A new production engineering is inherent to the kit architecture. Volkswagen plants worldwide are being currently changed to accommodate the kit, and to become nodes in a larger production kit architecture. If people think of badge engineering, then they are misguided, says Hackenberg: «The creativity of engineers and designers of the different brands remains unencumbered. In the contrary. It is more welcome and more demanded than ever before». Such changes to the way the industry organized may be necessary if companies are to survive.
Шарики разложены по коробкам так, что в каждой коробке находится ровно один шар. Запись (n1, n2, ...., nN) означает, что в коробке с номером 1 лежит шарик с номером n1, в коробке с номером 2 лежит шарик с номером n2 и т.д. Например, (1, 3, 2) означает, что имеется 3 коробки и в коробке с номером 1 лежит шар с номером 1, в коробке с номером 2 лежит шар с номером 3, а в коробке с номером 3 лежит шар с номером 2. Разложение шаров по коробкам вида (1, 2, 3,...., N) называется правильным. За один ход разрешается поменять местами два любых шара. Изучите следующие вопросы: 1.1. Возможно ли за несколько ходов из разложения (4, 3, 5, 1, 2) получить правильное разложение? 1.2. Опишите все возможные разложения, которые можно получить из разложения (4, 3, 5, 1, 2). 1.3. Любое ли разложение шаров по 5 коробкам можно за несколько ходов сделать правильным? 1.4. Верно ли что из любого разложения шаров по 5 коробкам можно получить любое другое разложение? 1.5. Возможно ли за 40 ходов из набора (5, 3, 1, 4, 2) получить набор a) (3, 4, 5, 1, 2); б) (2, 1, 5, 3, 4)? 1.6. Попробуйте оценить количество различных ходов, которое потребуется, чтобы произвольное разложение (a1, a2, a3, a4, a5) шаров по 5 коробкам сделать правильным, если это возможно (ответ должен зависеть от расположения переменных ak). Единственна ли последовательность различных ходов, с помощью которой некоторое фиксированное разложение шаров по 5 коробкам можно сделать правильным? 1.7. Попробуйте оценить количество различных ходов, необходимое для того, чтобы произвольное разложение (a1, a2, a3, a4, a5) шаров по 5 коробкам сделать разложением вида a) (5, 4, 3, 2, 1); б) (5, 1, 4, 2, 3). 1.8. Попробуйте описать множество различных разложений шаров по 5 коробкам, которое можно получить из некоторого фиксированного разложения (a1, a2, a3, a4, a5) за a) три хода; б) четыре хода; в) k ходов. 2. Рассмотрите аналогичные вопросы для произвольного числа коробок N. 3. Пусть теперь в условиях пункта 1 за один ход разрешается сделать следующее: в произвольном порядке выбрать три коробки и переложить содержимое первой выбранной коробки во вторую, второй выбранной коробки в третью, а третьей выбранной коробки в первую. Рассмотрите вопросы пунктов 1 и 2 в этом случае. 4. Пусть в условиях пункта 1 за один ход разрешается сделать следующее: в произвольном порядке выбрать m коробок с номерами i1, i2, ..., im и переложить содержимое коробки с номером i1 в коробку с номером i2, коробки с номером i2 в коробку с номером i3, ..., коробки с номером im в коробку с номером i1. Назовем такую операцию произвольным циклическим сдвигом m коробок. Рассмотрите вопросы пунктов 1 и 2 в этом случае. 5. Рассмотрите случай, когда в условиях пункта 4 номера выбранных коробок i1, i2, ..., im должны быть упорядочены a) по возрастанию (назовем такую операцию прямым циклическим сдвигом m коробок); б) по убыванию (назовем такую операцию обратным циклическим сдвигом m коробок). 6. Пусть дан некоторый набор различных натуральных чисел M = {m1, m2,…, mk}, 1 ≤ mi ≤ N. За один ход разрешается выбрать одно из чисел mi и совершить a) произвольный циклический сдвиг mi коробок; b) прямой циклический сдвиг mi коробок; с) обратный циклический сдвиг mi коробок. Рассмотрите вопросы пунктов 1 и 2 для произвольного набора чисел M или хотя бы для некоторых наборов: 6.1. M = {2, 3}; 6.2. M состоит из всех четных натуральных чисел, не превосходящих N; 6.3. M состоит из всех нечетных натуральных чисел, не превосходящих N; 6.4. M состоит из всех натуральных чисел, делящихся на 3 и не превосходящих N; 6.5. M состоит из всех натуральных чисел, делящихся на t и не превосходящих N; 7. Предложите и рассмотрите различные обобщения этой задачи.
1. Ι ΊΙ study… history of Crete next year.
2… History is an interesting subject.
3.… water in your glass is hot.
4. He always drinks… cold water.
5. She lives on… Bridge Street.
6… Mississippi river is… longest river in… world.
7. A lot of ships cross… Pacific Ocean.
8. We drink… tea out of… cups.
9… tea in this cup is too cold. 10. For me breakfast is.… best meal of… day
wash my face,clean my teeth. After that I get dressed,put on make-up,comb my hair and left home for the university. As a rule,the road there takes me 20 minutes. My study begin at 8.30 and finish at 2 p.m. At 2 o clock the classes are over and I go home. When my workday ends, I am doing homework. In the evening, I prefer to relax home. Sometimes I watch TV and listen music. Or may surf the Internet. Then I go to bed at 12 o clock.
Вопрос задан анонимно
07.12.16
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