Task #1 Read the text and answer the questions METALWORKING Metals are important in industry because they can be easily deformed into useful

shapes. A lot of metalworking processes have been developed for certain applications. They can be divided into five broad groups: 1. rolling, 2. extrusion, 3. drawing, 4. forging, 5. sheet-metal forming. During the first four processes metal is subjected to large amounts of strain (deformation). But if deformation goes at a high temperature, the metal will recrystallize — that is, new strain-free grains will grow instead of deformed grains. For this reason metals are usually rolled, extruded, drawn, or forged above their recrystallization temperature. This is called hot working. Under these conditions there is no limit to the compressive plastic strain to which the metal can be subjected. Other processes are performed below the recrystalli-zation temperature. These are called cold working. Cold working hardens metal and makes the part stronger. However, there is a limit to the strain before a cold part cracks. Rolling Rolling is the most common metalworking process.More than 90 percent of the aluminum, steel and copper produced are rolled at least once in the course of production. The most common rolled product is sheet. Rolling can be done either hot or cold. If the rolling is finished cold, the surface will be smoother and the product stronger. Extrusion Extrusion is pushing the billet to flow through the orifice of a die. Products may have either a simple or a complex cross section. Aluminium window frames are the examples of complex extrusions. Tubes or other hollow parts can also be extruded. The initial piece is a thick-walled tube, and the extruded part is shaped between a die on the outside of the tube and a mandrel held on the inside. In back-extrusion (штамповка выдавливанием) the workpiece is placed in the bottom of a hole and a loosely fitting ram is pushed against it. The ram forces the metal to flow back around it, with the gap between the ram and the die determining the wall thickness. The example of this process is the manufacturing of aluminium beer cans. Дополнительный словарь: metalworking — металлообработка shape [∫eip] — форма, формировать rolling ['rouliŋ] — прокатка extrusion [eks'tru:jәn] — экструзия, выдавливание drawing ['dro:iŋ] — волочение forging ['fo:djiŋ] — ковка sheet [∫i:t] — лист at least — по крайней мере common ['komәn] — общий billet ['bilit] – заготовка cross section — поперечное сечение die [dai] — штамп, пуансон, матрица, фильера, волочильная доска window frame [freim] – рама окна tube [tju:b] — труба initial piece — заготовка hollow ['holәu] — полый thick-walled — толстостенный mandrel ['mændril] — оправка, сердечник loosely ['lu:sli] — свободно, с зазором fitting — зд. Посадка ram [ræm] — пуансон, плунжер Answer the questions: 1. Why are metals so important in industry? 2. What are the main metalworking processes? 3. Why are metals worked mostly hot? 4. What properties does cold working give to metals? 5. What is rolling? Where is it used? 6. What is extrusion? What shapes can be obtained after extrusion? 7. What are the types of extrusion?


1. Metals are important for industry because they can be easily deformed into useful shapes.
2. The main metalworking processes are rolling, extrusion, drawing, forging, sheet-metal forming.
3. Metals are worked mostly hot because new strain-free grains will gwow instead of deformed grains.
4. Cool working gives such properties as hardening metals and making the part stronger
5. Rolling is the most common metalworking process which is used during the work with aluminium, steel and copper
6. Extraction is pushing a billet to flow through the orifice of a die. 
7. The type of extraction is back extraction

Елена Васильевна

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Natali Yah

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