Operating Troubles in General Every engineer knows that it is impossible to predict all the possible troubles that may arise in an engine room. The

following describes some of the derangements that can arise and their causes. Water in fuel oil. Water may get into the fuel oil by leakage defective welding of tanks, through alternate use of tanks for fuel oil and water ballast, or the fuel oil as delivered into tanks may contain considerable moisture that will settle out. The troubles then are cracked heads and pistons, burned out exhaust valves, injection valve, H.P. fuel pumps. Improperly refined oil. Fuel oil must, during the refining process, be treated with sulphuric acid and this acid must later be neutralized with soda. When the engine is opened up after running on the insufficiently washed oil, the entire surface of the combustion spaces in the cylinders has a coating of gritty material which is mostly sodium sulphate. It causes considerable wear of piston rings and cylinder liners. Cracked cylinders and cylinder heads. Cracks may result from unequal heating due to poor design, bad castings, air pockets in jackets, lack of cooling water and overloading.Cracking from the first two causes seldom occurs. Troubles arising from air pockets are eliminated by periodical opening of the vent cocks on the cylinder heads. When for any reason the cooling water supply to part or all of the cylinders fails, the engine should not be kept in operation long while the trouble is being corrected. Cracks that are due to overloading usually result from local overloading, caused by trouble with the fuel pumps or some other conditions that cause one or more cylinders to quit firing. III. Выпишите из текста предложения в страдательном залоге, подчеркните сказуемое, определите его время. IV. Выпишите из текста примеры многокомпонентных определительных словосочетаний. Запишите их перевод.
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